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【 论文】试析大学英语四六级网考对英语学习的反拨效应实证研究(论文范文标题)

星级: ★★★★ 期刊: 《语文学刊·外语教育与教学》作者:程王月,朱秋娟浏览量:5072 论文级别:高评本章主题:效应和测试原创论文: 5156论文网更新时间:12-30审核稿件编辑:Rupert本文版权归属:www.5156chinese.cn 分享次数:2690 评论次数: 6876

导读:本篇文章是效应和测试类的论文,提供给准备写作相关这方面论文文献综述评语的应届毕业生们提供参考阅读下载。

(Foreign Language School, Wuhan University of Science and Technology,Wuhan, Hubei, 430081)

[Abstract]The washback of language testing, especially foreign language testing on teaching and learning is the important study topic in the field of applied linguistics。 In order to investigate the Internet-based CET washback on college English learning, a multi-method research design is utilized for the present study to collect both qualitative and quantitative data via a questionnaire and interviews with 366 non-English majors from the case study university (Wuhan University of Science and Technology)。 The findings show that the washback of the Internet-based CET on students’ learning attitudes and listening strategies as well as learning behavior is complicated because the questionnaire results indicate the washback varies from student to student。 However, its general effect on learning is evident。 Based on the findings of the research, implications to promote positive washback of the Internet-based CET on college English learning are put forward。

[Key words]language testing,washback,empirical study

[中图分类号] H319[文献标识码] A[文章编号] 1672\|8610(2014)10\|0140\|06

I。 Introduction

Language testing which is used to assess test takers’ language proficiency plays an important role in English teaching and learning。 Like the testing of other subjects, language testing can exert power or impact on the test stakeholders or the different educational parties involved, such as students, teachers, the educational system, and the society。

College English Test Band 4 and Band 6 (CET hereafter) are national standardized proficiency tests intended for the undergraduates of non-English majors in China where English is taught as a foreign language (EFL)。

The IBCET (Internet-based CET) puts emphasis up on testing students’ communicative ability and the actual needs of language teaching and learning in colleges and universities are reflected。 In regard to test content, test types, and the weight of each section, a conclusion can be drawn that the objectives of college English are more successfully covered。 That is to develop students’ ability to use English in a well-rounded way, especially in listening and speaking。

Ⅱ。 Literature Review

Tests can exert great influence or impact on teaching and learning which has long been asserted。 Hamp-Lyons (1996) gives the description “while washback refers to how tests affect teaching and learning, impact covers their broader influence on education and society”。 The year 1993 witnessed the study focus of washback has been shifted from making statements about washback to setting up theoretical frameworks。

Alderson and Wall (1993) describes washback hypotheses in their Does Washback Exist?, a classic which paves the way for subsequent researches, that “It might help to clarify our thinking if we attempt to state the Washback Hypothesis explicitly”。 From a reading of the literature on language testing generally, and from our experience of talking to teachers about their teaching and testing, it is possible to develop different hypotheses, from the most general and vague to the somewhat more refined, which take account of different factors。 It is useful to try to separate out the factors, as below。

Some possible Washback Hypotheses

(1) A test will influence teaching。

(2) A test will influence learning。

(3) A test will influence what teachers teach。

(4) A test will influence how teachers teach。

(5) A test will influence what learners learn。

(6) A test will influence how learners learn。

(7) A test will influence the rate and sequence of teaching。

(8) A test will influence the rate and sequence of learning。

(9) A test will influence the degree and depth of teaching。

(10) A test will influence the degree and depth of learning。

(11) A test will influence attitudes to the content, method, etc。 of teaching and learning。

(12) Tests that have important consequences will have washback; and conversely

(13) Tests that do not have important consequences will have no washback。

(14) Tests will have washback on all learners and teachers。

(15) Tests will have washback effects for some learners and some teachers, but not for others”。

Based on the above theoretical frameworks for washback studies, a lot of empirical studies of washback in the field of general education and language education have been conducted since 1990s。

Major Empirical studies of washback abroad include Alderson and Wall (1993), Alderson and Hamp-Lyons (1996), Shohamy et al。 (1996), Watanabe (1996), Robb and Ercanbrack (1999), Shahrzad Saif (2006)。 Major empirical studies of washback in China include Cheng Liying (1997), He Congzhou (1998),Ye Juxian (1998), Jinyan (2000), Huang Dayong (2002), Tang Xiongying (2005), Gu Xiangdong (2007), Cao Qin (2009)。

Ⅲ。 Research Methodology

3。1 Research design

To reach the objectives of the research, both questionnaires as quantitati

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ve research method and interviews as qualitative research method are employed in the present study。

Based on Hughes’ Trichotomy Backwash Mechanisms, Alderson and Wall’s Washback Hypotheses, and Bailey’s Basic Model of Washback, the purpose of this study is to analyze the IBCET washback on college English learning, and the specific research questions are raised as follows。

1。 What are washback effects of the IBCET on students’ learning? To be specific, in what aspects and to what extent is the IBCET washback reflected?

2。 How can the positive washback of the IBCET be prompted?

3。2 Research subjects

336 undergraduates of non-English major from freshmen to seniors have participated in the study。 They are either in their late teens or in their early twenties and have been learning English for more than six years。 They majored differently in different schools of WUST (Wuhan University of Science and Technology) such as Civil Engineering, Business Management, Marketing, Architecture Art, Clinical medicine, Economics, Law, Accounting etc。 These students are randomly chosen for the present study because they are all non-English major students who all received

大学英语四六级网考对英语学习的反拨效应实证研究
效应和测试论文文献综述评语

college English education and have or haven’t taken the IBCET which may influence their English learning。 Besides the textbooks mentioned above, the students use New Era Interactive English published by Tsinghua University Press as the book for viewing, listening, and speaking learning in a self-access English language learning center of WUST。

3。3 Research instruments

Questionnaire for students consists of 19 items which fall into 2 categories。 The first category is about students’ general information such as gender, grade, major, English level and the number of English classes in the surveyed semester (items 1-5)。 The second category was concerned with students’ familiarity, interest and views towards the IBCET (items 6, 7, 19), their reasons for choosing or not choosing to take the test (items 8, 9, 10, 11), their perceptions of possible learning influences caused by the IBCET (item 12), their awareness of the importance of the IBCET attached by school administrators and the relation between the IBCET and requirements for getting their diploma or scholarship (items 16, 17), their current college English learning situation which includes learning contents, learning methods, learning materials, time allotment, learning focus and other factors that may influence their learning activity, computer and web based activities in particular (items 13, 14, 15, 18)。 The items 6, 7, 9, 12 and 14 were on a five-point Likert scale。

Interview is utilized as a complementary instrument to understand the students’ responses collected by questionnaire in depth。 “Interview is one of the major techniques in qualitative research” (Burns, 2000)。 On the basis of the interview guide questions projected in advance, semi-structured interview and group interview were used to obtain flexible qualitative data generated from the interviewee during the interview process for the study。 The interview guide questions originate from Alderson and Wall’s Washback Hypotheses, Bailey’s Basic Model of Washback, design principles for interview guide。

The interview guide questions for students consist of four topics: students’ familiarity with the IBCET, their views on the IBCET, possible learning influences and measures taken to cope with the impact caused by the IBCET。

3。4 Data collection procedures

366 usable students’ questionnaires were gathered。 In order to make sure the arbitrariness of students’ sample to get a full understanding of the influence on the whole non-English major students, the author collected the data with two stages for nearly one month。 Firstly, the author collected students’ questionnaires through a professional online questionnaire survey website named SOJUMP。 Due to the limited number of members in the official QQ group named the IBCET in WUST and limited human resources of different undergraduates with different majors, only 146 usable copies were administered online。 Then, the author distributed students’ questionnaires in a large scale in libraries and classrooms in which students are either in self study or during class intervals in the campus of WUST。 220 usable copies of students’ questionnaires were gathered in this way。

The interviews with students were held in ways of semi-structured conversation and group discussion to make them feel at ease and talk freely in order to acquire more authentic minds。 8 students surveyed in the questionnaire are invited to take semi-structured interviews and four groups of 6 students from four grades are group interviewed in the library within three days。

All the accumulated data were reserved and classified carefully by the present author。 Detailed analysis will be covered in the following。

Ⅳ。 Results and Discussions of Questionnaires

4。1 Students’ familiarity with and interest in the IBCET

Table 1Students’ familiarity with the IBCET

Familiar (%)

GradeUnfamiliarNot very

clearHave a rough

understandingFamiliarQuite

familiar

129。4152。9417。6500

29。0943。1838。646。822。27

311。7924。4942。9317。343。45

47。0412。3556。3119。74。6

Table 2Students’ Interest in the IBCET

Interest (%)

GradeNot interested

at allInterested

littleInterestedMuch

interestedMost

interested

105。8829。4164。710

22。2711。3643。1834。099。09

3020。6937。9341。380

43。5124。5629。8242。110

Items 6 and 7 in questionnaire for students are designed to examine how many students involved in the study are familiar with and interested in the IBCET。 As is shown in above table 4。9 and 4。10, the majority of freshmen know little about the IBCET, they are of great interest in it however。 The data from the above tables reveal that nearly half (47。73%) of sophomores surveyed in the study claim that they are familiar with the IBCET to some extent and 85。37% of them claim that they are interested in the test at least。 The data to juniors show 63。72% of them are familiar with the IBCET and 79。31% of them are interested in it。 As for seniors, only 19。39% of respondents say they know little about the IBCET and only 28。07% of them show not too much interest。 To sum up, students’ familiarity with and interest in the IBCET vary with their grade。 When they are in higher grades, they are more possible to be familiar with and interested in the IBCET。

4。2 Students’ attitudes towards taking and views on the IBCET

The item 8 in questionnaire for students finds out that 53 of the total 366 surveyed students have already taken the IBCET, reasons why they choose the IBCET and the corresponding proportion for each reason are listed as below:

Table 3The reasons for participating in IBCET

ItemPercentage (%)

Better in listening, easy to get high score11。32

No translation15。09

Skillful at operating computer 16。98

Fond of this new type of examination

and want to have a try37。74

Unfamiliar with the specifics of

the IBCET and think it’s simple20。75

Failed in the PBCET, and

the IBCET is much easier16。98

Four opportunities every year,

convenient for quick pass of CET41。51

Other reasons5。66

Notes: 1。 Students are allowed to choose more than one item, so the total figure of percentage can exceed 100%。 2。 Other reasons are marked as: Failed in register of the PBCET; Good way to get used to Internet-based test so as to prepare for TOEFL。

The item 9 in questionnaire for students figures out whether the 313 involved students will take the IBCET in the future or not。 Below bar chart can demonstrate their intentions clearly。

Figure 1Students’ intentions of whether to take the IBCET in the future

Reasons why they will not participate in the IBCET and the corresponding proportion for each reason are listed as below:

Table 4The reasons for not participating in IBCET

ItemPercentage (%)

Not good at operating computer and

easy to be eye-tired, used to the PBCET17。89

Causing more anxieties than the PBCET12。46

Unfamiliar with details of

IBCET and afraid of failing38。98

Large proportion in listening

and not good at listening37。70

Having to take oral test14。38

Other reasons10。22

ItemPercentage (%)

Better in listening, easy to get high score11。32

No translation15。09

Skillful at operating computer 16。98

Fond of this new type of examination

and want to have a try37。74

Unfamiliar with the specifics of

IBCET and think it’s simple20。75

Failed in the PBCET,

and IBCET is much easier16。98

Four opportunities every year,

convenient for quick pass of CET41。51

Other reasons5。66

Notes: 1。 Students are allowed to choose more than one item, so the total figure of percentage can exceed 100%。 2。 Other reasons are marked as: Having past CET; Failed in register of IBCET; Fond of the PBCET; Test fees for the PBCET are less。

By reviewing the involved students’ reasons for participating in the IBCET, it is safe to estimate that the IBCET is rather welcome by students in that it is novel and convenient。 And for not participating in the IBCET, it is due to their unfamiliarity with the test and the high weight of listening based tasks。 On the whole, the IBCET is popular among students even though the number of students who have participated in the test is small。 This indicates students’ attitudes towards the IBCET is positive。

The item 19 in questionnaire for students sheds light on the involved students’ views on the IBCET when compared with the PBCET。 Their preference can be shown in the following table。

Table 5Students’ views on the IBCET

ItemPercentage (%)

More efficient in testing

comprehensive English capability 59。02

More efficient in being urged to improve

English listening and speaking capability61。75

More difficult and easy to be frustrated25。96

Time for learning is squeezed by trying to be

familiar with the operation of computer 22。95

Others6。83

Notes: 1。 Students are allowed to choose more than one item, so the total figure of percentage can exceed 100%。 2。 Other reasons are marked as: Good for arousing interest; Increased pass rate; Limited test method; No comment。

The data reveal that the respondents’ views on the IBCET are generally optimistic。 Students are glad to improve their English listening and speaking as they think the IBCET is a good way to help them put more emphasis on listening and speaking。

4。3 Washback of the IBCET on various aspects of students’ learning

The item 12 in questionnaire for students tries to know students’ general thoughts about their English learning influenced by the IBCET。

Table 6Students’ general perception of the IBCET influence

Influence

PercentageNo

influenceLittle

influence Not

clearSome

influence Strong

influence

%8。925。3929。2533。043。42

The study results display that 36。46% of the students under survey believe the IBCET has influence on their English learning, 29。25 % of the respondents are not aware of the influence, and another 34。29% of the students under study think the IBCET has no obvious influence on their English learning。

Items 13, 14, 15, and 18 in questionnaire for students are concrete aspects of students’ learning situation in relation with the IBCET。 The results of these items can show the potential influence brought by the IBCET on students’ English learning contents, learning methods, learning materials, time allotment, learning focus and other factors that may influence their learning activities, computer and web based activities in particular。

Figure 2Time allocated to computer and web based English study beyond class time

Referring to the above pie chart, a large proportion of the students (80。05%) spend less than one hour in computer and web based English study beyond class time every day。 Only

3。55% of students spend more than two hours in English learning。 The results seem to be pessimistic。

Table 7After class English-related activities

ItemNever (%)Occasional (%)Sometimes (%)Often (%)Always (%)

Listening of English dialogue andpassage recordings31。42 41。80 20。49 4。92 1。37

Watching English movies or other video programs12。30 34。97 27。32 23。22 2。19

Writing video reviews in English 62。30 22。68 11。75 2。73 0。55

Listening and repeating text sentences29。51 40。44 17。76 10。38 2。19

Imitating movie lines22。68 40。44 19。95 15。85 1。37

Listening and singing English songs4。92 30。87 24。04 33。61 6。83

Learning basic English knowledge online11。75 42。35 25。41 17。21 3。55

Reading English articles and browsing English websites online20。49 36。89 28。14 10。93 3。55

Chatting online in English39。07 39。07 15。03 5。46 1。37

Doing listening and speaking exercises in

self-access English language learning center22。68 35。52 28。14 9。56 4。10

Doing reading and writing exercises in

self-access English language learning center25。96 39。07 23。22 8。20 3。55

Doing translation practice20。49 40。44 25。41 12。30 1。37

Doing textbook exercises19。13 36。34 27。32 13。66 3。55

Doing IBCET mock tests32。79 24。04 28。14 10。38 4。92

It can be implied from the Table 7, for after class English-related activities, especially computer and web based activities are seldom done by students。 Only recreational activities like watching English movie or listening and singing English songs can seize interest of the majority of students。 The data suggest that the IBCET test constructors’ intentions of cultivating students’ habits of self study through web based method are not substantially realized。 It can also be easily figured out that traditional English learning activities, CET-related activities in particular are also not common among the students involved。 This means students may not be interested in the test-oriented English learning method。 It seems that their interest in after class English learning may not be influenced by IBCET。

Table 8Students’ view on five basic language skills

Skill (%)

ItemListening SpeakingReadingWritingTranslating

Most emphasized skill44。5459。0231。4224。0419。13

Most difficult to improve41。8047。819。5619。9523。22

Most eager to improve39。6257。6514。4817。2118。58

Most time invested32。2420。4941。8030。8710。93

Note: students are allowed to choose more than one skill, so the total figure of each item can exceed 100%。

As the data in Table 8 indicate, speaking is the most emphasized skill。 Listening and reading ranks second and third。 Speaking, listening, and translating are the top three difficult skills to improve for students。 More than half of the students regard speaking as the skill they are most eager to improve。 Surprisingly, students are more eager to improve their listening skill instead of reading skill。 Speaking and listening are primary medium for acquiring information in modern world, which is noted by the students and reflected in the IBCET。 Thus, students’ attitudes towards the five basic skills are in accordance with the change in the Requirements that result in the focus of listening rather than reading in the IBCET。 It’s very interesting that the statistics demonstrate reading is the skill in which students invest most time。 It seemingly contradicts the fact that students attach importance to listening and speaking while they invest most time in reading。 It is probably because reading is hard for them and still is the most commonly used English learning method and the coverage of the IBCET。 It is believed the purpose of the IBCET is to draw students’ attention to improve listening and speaking so translation is thought to be less important。 This indicates students can take the advantage of the IBCET in this sense。 As a result, the IBCET has strong motivating effects on the aspects of listening, speaking, reading and writing but little on translating。

Table 9Factors affecting students’ computer and web based English learning activities

ItemPercentage (%)

The Requirements26。78

Management within the school of foreign languages39。07

English course arrangement34。15

Number of English class periods30。05

Task percentage for other subjects26。78

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Teachers’ teaching 29。51

Learning device31。42

Assessment for final exam23。22

The CET34。97

Learning interest and preference54。92

English level35。52

Others2。05

Notes: 1。 Students are allowed to choose more than one item, so the total figure of percentage can exceed 100%。 2。 Other factors are marked as: Personal mood; Weather condition。

Altogether 12 items in Item 18 in the questionnaire for students are designed to investigate various factors that may affect students’ computer and web based English learning activities。 The statistics show that 54。79% of students surveyed choose the factor of their own learning interest and preference as the most influential one。 Other factors like management within the school of foreign languages, English course arrangement, English class periods, learning device, and English level all play an similar role in students’ computer and web based English learning activities with the CET。 Consequently, the IBCET have no obvious effect on prompting students to do more computer and web based English learning activities。

4。5 The IBCET washback on administration

Items 16 and 17 in the questionnaire for students figure out the IBCET washback effect from the perspective of school administrators and students’ scholarship appraisal or diploma granting。

Table 10Importance degree of the IBCET attached by school administrators

Importance

PercentageNo

importanceLittle

importance Not

clearSome

importance Great

importance

%4。9239。624。6446。454。37

Table 11Influence of students’ pass of the CET on scholarship appraisal or diploma granting

Influence

PercentageNo

influenceLittle

influence Not

clearSome

influence Strong

influence

%8。211。478。246。1725。96

Data in Item 16 and 17 in the questionnaire for students show that 44。54% of the students believe that the administrators of their department or school attribute no or little importance to the IBCET。 72。13% of the students believe that there is much relation between the pass of CET and their scholarship appraisal or diploma granting。 Here, the function of the IBCET equals to the PBCET, which means the IBCET washback on administration is evident。

Ⅴ。 Conclusion

5。1 Implications for learning

Concerning with the purpose and focus of the IBCET, students should pay more attention to the interactive way of English learning such as try to communicate with people in English as much as possible whenever they can。 They may expose themselves to more authentic English learning contexts such as English news, interviews, movies etc。 What’s more, students can find out English learning ways that are suitable for themselves。 For example, interest is the best teacher。 Students with motivation can learn much better to inhibit the negative washback brought about by the IBCET。

Besides, students should make efforts to overcome the psychological obstacles for English learning such as be anxious

本篇试析大学英语四六级网考对英语学习的反拨效应实证研究论文范文综合参考评定如下
有关论文范文主题研究:效应方面的论文文献综述评语大学生适用:学士论文
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or shy of practicing。 They should be brave enough to speak out to fulfill the intended IBCET washback which is to train students self learning abilities。

Last but not least, students should pay attention to the developmental trends of the modern society and innovations happened in school。 Only in this way can they get to know new ways of learning even better。 As a result, they are better competent to cope with tests such as the IBCET。

5。2 Limitations of the Study

The present study aims to investigate the washback effects of the IBCET onstudents’ learning from the data collected by questionnaires and interviews。 However, there are three limitations of the study。 First, the sample of the study is small and limited no matter in the number or the origin of subjects picking。 Only 366 students from the same university were surveyed。 They can not indicate the accurate situation for the whole college English students in China。 Second, longitudinal approach such as classroom observation is not adopted in the present study because of the limited time and energy。 Third, the data analysis method is not so explicit as T-test and variance analysis were not included in the study。 Nevertheless, the study can represent the actual situation in the case study university to some extent。

5。3 Suggestions for further research

Based on the experience acquired from the present study, the author here want to put forward some suggestions or recommendations for future research。

Follow-up empirical washback researches need to be conducted to detect and compare the specific IBCET-4 and IBCET-6 washback on teaching and learning, and the size sample is suggested to be extended to a much larger population of collegestudents, those who have participated the tests in particular。 In-depth research can be done for the intended washback expected by the IBCET constructors and policy makers。 Textbook writer, course designer and school administrators may also be included into the empirical research subjects to find out whether the IBCET exerts washback on them or not。 Qualitative research methods should be emphasized and the results should be converted into statistically measurable reports in the future washback research。

【 References 】

[1]Hamp-Lyons, L。 1996。 Ethical test preparation: The case of TOEFL[J]。Language Testing Research Colloquium, Chicago, IL。

\[2\] Alderson, J。 C。, Wall, D。 1993。 Does washback exist?[J]。Applied Linguistics, 14(2)。

\[3\] Burns, R。B。 2000。 Introduction to research methods[M]。London: Sage Publications。

大学英语四六级网考对英语学习的反拨效应实证研究

程玥朱秋娟

(武汉科技大学 外国语学院,湖北武汉430081)

[摘要]语言测试,尤其是外语测试对相应的教学和学习的反拨效应一直是应用语言学研究的重要课题.为了调查大学英语四六级网考对大学英语学习的影响,以武汉科技大学366名非英语专业学生为研究对象,以问卷调查和访谈两种研究方法采集定性数据和定量数据进行实证研究.结果显示,虽然网考对不同学生学习态度,学习策略和学习行为所产生的反拨效应各异,但总体明显.以此揭示四六级网考对大学英语学习正面反拨效应的一些启示.

[关键词]语言测试;反拨效应;实证研究

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