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【学士论文】探讨Master scholars and Gentry:A Review of the Research on the Traditional Chinese Scholar official in the Hydraulic Society(论文资料)

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Abstract:Already for quite some time, the unique power structure of the traditional Chinese society has been viewed and discussed in the field of humanities and social sciences。 Focusing on the status and role of its gentry class, Chinese and Western scholars have deeply researched the general characteristics of the political structure in the traditional Chinese society。 And the analysis of the interaction between different social groups from the perspective of the traditional Chinese ‘hydraulic’ structure has even gradually deepened and expanded this research topic。 This paper looks at relevant research conducted by former scholars like e。g。 Weber, Wittfogel, and Fei Xiaotong while attempting to come to a more historic understanding of the relationship between the imperial power and the gentry class within the power structure of traditional Chinese society: this essay indeed focuses on the political status and social function of the gentry class in the traditional Chinese hydraulic society。

Based on the research findings of scholars like Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, and Karl Heinrich Marx, Weber pointed out that in Eastern societies there was a certain relationship between the autocracy and the local irrigationbased agriculture。 And Weber believed that the relationship between the autocratic imperial power and the more local Confucian gentry was the key to understanding the political structure of the Chinese society。 At that time and place, the local water managementprojects, other entrenched bureaucracies, the respected Confucian gentry, as well as

Master scholars and Gentry:A Review of the Research on the Traditional Chinese Scholar official in the Hydraulic Society
学刊和字数论文详细提纲

the central imperial power were all intertwined together; this shaped a unique form of political power in traditional China。

By borrowing Marx’s concept of ‘the Asiatic mode of production’, Wittfogel discussed the relationship between (i) the political autocracy and (ii) indigenous irrigation projects in Eastern societies, seen from the perspective of political economics。 He proposed that the political autocracy was a result of the social functioning of hydraulic projects, and briefly described the Eastern society as an ‘Orientalauthoritarian’ society under the rule of an ‘absolute monarchy’。 In the eyes of Wittfogel, the traditional Chinese gentry was just a bureaucratic group attached to the totalitarian rule: their power did not draw from their own knowledge monopoly of value ethics and ritua

本篇探讨Master scholars and Gentry:A Review of the Research on the Traditional Chinese Scholar official in the Hydraulic Society论文范文综合参考评定如下
有关论文范文主题研究:学刊方面的论文详细提纲大学生适用:博士论文
相关参考文献下载数量:2075写作解决问题:写论文详细提纲
毕业论文开题报告:学士任务书写作职称论文适用:晋升职称论文
所属大学生专业类别:学刊方面论文详细提纲论文题目推荐度:经典标题
l standards, but solely from their powerrelationship with the despotic ruler。 According to Wittfogel, the ‘hydraulic society’, totalitarian rule, bureaucratic groupings, and imperial power were all intertwined and together made up the government form of the traditional Chinese society。

While Weber described the gentry as reputable Confucian intellectuals, Wittfogel regarded them as mere bureaucrats firmly attached to the totalitarian rule。 In contrast with the Western scholars’ too simple view of the ‘gentry group’, Chinese scholars have emphasized that this ‘gentry group’ was an organism made up of bureaucrats and literati: they not only participated in local governance and cultural activities, but they also lived and passed on the inheritance of Confucian orthodox ideology。

Fei Xiaotong stressed constantly that the traditional Chinese political system wasn’t completely arbitrary; instead it was closely related to the social class of the scholarofficials (a combination of the bureaucrats and gentry within Chinese society)。 Fei stated that the traditional Chinese society had a ‘bottomup’ or ‘secondary/parallel’ track: this ‘informal track’ made it possible for the ordinary people to pass on their opinions to top level people。 Guided by taotung (Confucian orthodoxy), the scholarintellectuals were able to influence political power by expressing their opinions and by putting forward a set of ethical principles。 Although they had no part in real political power, they still maintained a social prestige。 As a buffer between imperial power and the common people, the scholarofficials could not only extend the power of the monarch to the far corners of society, but they also could properly protect the interests of farmers through some informal channels outside of the system。

In the view of Yu Yingshi, the scholarofficials not only were royal officers but also teachers of the emperor: that is why they could exert constraint to autocratic imperial power。 Nevertheless, autocratic imperial power also constrained them。 Even so, the bureaucrats and gentry kept alive the taotung in traditional Chinese political life, which safeguarded basic social values。 However,the strength of taotung was always weaker than that of the royal power, therefore, Chinese society did have a tendency of ‘oriental despotism’ described by Wittfogel。

In the study of Zhang Yahui, the scholarofficial group was positioned right in middle of the society: this allowed them to work upwardly and downwardly。 They thus could (i) cooperate with the public to fight against the rulers’ invasion of local life, and they (ii) could compromise and agree with the rulers as to construct a new harmonious coexistence model。 His study reemphasized the historical role of the scholarofficial group in keeping social harmony。 In this study, the scholarofficial group on one hand counterbalanced the central power’s

此篇Master scholars and Gentry:A Review of the Research on the Traditional Chinese Scholar official in the Hydraulic Society文章原创地址:http://www.5156chinese.cn/zhengzhi/561516.html

interference with local affairs, and on the other hand shaped more reasonable identities of the central power, acceptable for local communities。 Zhang Yahui’s study reminds us thatin the traditional Chinese societyauthoritarian rulers, the scholarofficial group, and the public interlaced with, constrained, and supported each other, and thus constituted the overall picture of the traditional China。

The scholarofficial group thus was a major force in maintaining the social cohesion of the traditional Chinese society。 When indeed we consider both the ‘masterscholars’ and ‘bureaucrats’the two special components of Chinese scholarofficial class-we can better understand the characteristics of the vivid and interactive relationships between the rulers, the scholarofficials, and the local common people。 In other words, only when we recognize these two aspects of the gentry class, can we see the ‘unifying mechanism’ of the traditional Chinese society; this allows us to develop a clearer social and historical picture of the traditional Chinese interaction between imperial power, scholarly power, and civil rights。 To get to this new understanding of the power structure of the traditional Chinese hydraulic society, we need to critically review all sorts of other si

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mplified understandings of the period gentry group。

Key Words:hydraulic society; scholarofficial; traditional China; powerful structure

References:

Fei Xiaotong。 xiangtu zhongguo (From the SoilThe Foundations of the Chinese Society), Nanjing: jiangsu wenyi chubanshe, 2007。

Karl A。Wittfogel。 dongfang zhuanzhi zhuyi (Oriental Despotism), Xu Shigu, trans。 Beijing: zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 1989。

Max Weber。 zhongguo de zongjiao (Konfuzianismus und Taoismus), Kang Le, Jian Huimei, trans。 Guilin: guangxi shifan daxue chubanshe, 2004。

Zhou Rushan。 zhongyiben chuban shuoming (Statements for the Publication of the Chinese Edition) in dongfang zhuanzhi zhuyi (Oriental Despotism), Xu Shigu, trans。 Beijing: zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 1989。

Fei Xiaotong。 zhongguo shisheng (Chinese Gentry), Zhao Xudong, Qin Zhijie, trans。 Beijing: waiyu jiaoxue yu yanjiu chubanshe, 2011。

Yu Yingshi。 shi yu zhongguo wenhua (Gentry and Chinese Culture), Shanghai: shanghai renmin chubanshe, 2003。

Yu Yingshi。 “jun zun chen bei” xia de junquan yu xiangquan (Monarchical Power and Prime Ministerial Power Viewed in the Context of “Officials Inferior to Emperor”) In lishi yu sixiang (History and Ideology), Taiwan: lianjing chuban shiye youxian gongsi, 1976。

Zhang Yahui。 huangquan, fengjian yu fengchan jinci zhushen de lishi, shenhua yu yingyu de renleixue yanjiu (Monarchical Power, Feudalism, and Harvest: Anthropological Research of History, Myth, and Metaphors on Deities of the Jinci Temple) In Social Science Studies, 2014(1)。

Zhang Yahui。 shuide peitian: yige jinzhong shuili shehui de lishi yu daode (History and Morality of A Hydraulic Society in Jinzhong ), Beijing: minzu chubanshe, 2008。

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